At the end of 2019, the Syrian crisis remains a tragic reality. Regional and international actors will have to face serious political and social difficulties in meeting the challenges of the crisis in the Eastern Mediterranean region.
Saudi Arabia was a key player in the Cold War and a stage in which its battles unfolded. King Faysal's interpretation of Islam had developed as an anti-communist ideology in conjunction with the United States.
Following the recent withdrawal by the United States from the Iran nuclear deal, the Iran situation is becoming tense. There has been some discussion in Europe and the US about what will happen next.
The Sahel zone is more threatened by the climate change than any other region of the world. The developments in the Sahel present as well direct challenges to the Mediterranean region.